High Power Laser Science and Engineering
Co-Editors-in-Chief
Colin Danson, Jianqiang Zhu

Three designs for the laser target mounts.

2018
Volume: 6 Issue 2
25 Article(s)
Target Fabrication
Christopher Spindloe, Yuji Fukuda, Paul Fitzsimmons, Kai Du, and Colin Danson

High Power Laser Science and Engineering
Jan. 01, 1900
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e13 (2018)
  • Zhaoyang Jiao, Ping Shao, Dongfeng Zhao, Rong Wu, Lailin Ji, Li Wang, Lan Xia, Dong Liu, Yang Zhou, Lingjie Ju, Zhijian Cai, Qiang Ye, Zhanfeng Qiao, Neng Hua, Qiang Li, Wei Pan, Lei Ren, Mingying Sun, Jianqiang Zhu, and Zunqi Lin

    In high power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research, final optics assembly (FOA) plays a critical role in the frequency conversion, beam focusing, color separation, beam sampling and debris shielding. The design and performance of FOA in SG-II Upgrade laser facility are mainly introduced here. Due to the limited space and short focal length, a coaxial aspheric wedged focus lens is designed and applied in the FOA configuration. Then the ghost image analysis, the focus characteristic analysis, the B integral control design and the optomechanical design are carried out in the FOA design phase. In order to ensure the FOA performance, two key technologies are developed including measurement and adjustment technique of the wedged focus lens and the stray light management technique based on ground glass. Experimental results show that the design specifications including laser fluence, frequency conversion efficiency and perforation efficiency of the focus spot have been achieved, which meet the requirements of physical experiments well.

    Jan. 15, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e14 (2018)
  • Wenfa Huang, Jiangfeng Wang, Xinghua Lu, Tingrui Huang, Jiangtao Guo, Wei Fan, and Xuechun Li

    We demonstrate a laser diode end-pumped helium gas-cooled multislab Nd:glass laser amplifier. The design and thermal management of the proposed laser amplifier are discussed. The thermally induced wavefront aberration of the slabs was also measured and compared with simulation results. A small-signal single-pass longitudinal gain of 1.8 was measured with a pump energy of 7.3 J. With an injected seed energy of 0.6 mJ, the output energy from the amplifier reached 0.5 J at 0.2 Hz and 0.43 J at 0.5 Hz in a multipass extraction geometry, thus demonstrating the feasibility of diode-pumped, high-energy lasers with direct gas cooling.

    Feb. 01, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e15 (2018)
  • Chen Shi, Hanwei Zhang, Xiaolin Wang, Pu Zhou, and Xiaojun Xu

    Compared with traditional uniform fibers, tapered fiber has numerous unique advantages, such as larger mode area, higher pump absorption, suppression to nonlinear effects, and maintaining good beam quality. In this manuscript, we have constructed an all-fiberized fiber amplifier which is based on a piece of ytterbium-doped tapered double-clad fiber (T-DCF). The fiber amplifier is operated under continuous wave (CW) regime at 1080 nm wavelength. The $M^{2}$ factor of the amplifier at 1.39 kW output power is ${\sim}1.8$. The maximum output power of the system reached 1.47 kW, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest output power of long tapered fiber based fiber laser system. Our result successfully verifies the potential of power scalability and all-fiberized capability of long tapered fiber, and the performance of our system can be further enhanced by fiber design optimization.

    Feb. 27, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e16 (2018)
  • D. B. Schaeffer, L. R. Hofer, E. N. Knall, P. V. Heuer, C. G. Constantin, and C. Niemann

    We present a new experimental platform for studying laboratory astrophysics that combines a high-intensity, high-repetition-rate laser with the Large Plasma Device at the University of California, Los Angeles. To demonstrate the utility of this platform, we show the first results of volumetric, highly repeatable magnetic field and electrostatic potential measurements, along with derived quantities of electric field, charge density and current density, of the interaction between a super-Alfvénic laser-produced plasma and an ambient, magnetized plasma.

    Mar. 07, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e17 (2018)
  • Wei Chen, Bowen Liu, Youjian Song, Lu Chai, Qianjin Cui, Qingjing Liu, Chingyue Wang, and Minglie Hu

    We demonstrate an all polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber mode-locked laser seeded, hybrid fiber/solid-slab picosecond pulse laser system which outputs $40~\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\text{J}$, 10 ps pulses at the central wavelength of 1064 nm. The beam quality factors $M^{2}$ in the unstable and stable directions are 1.35 and 1.31, respectively. $15~\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\text{J}$ picosecond pulses at the central wavelength of 355 nm are generated through third harmonic generation (THG) by using two $\text{LiB}_{3}\text{O}_{5}$ (LBO) crystals, in order to get better processing efficiency on polycrystalline diamonds. The high pulse energy and beam quality of these ultraviolet (UV) picosecond pulses are confirmed by latter experiments of material processing on polycrystalline diamonds. This scheme which combines the advantages of the all PM fiber mode-locked laser and the solid-slab amplifier enables compact, robust and chirped pulse amplification-free amplification with high power picosecond pulses.

    Mar. 07, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e18 (2018)
  • Zhigang Zhao, Akira Ozawa, Makoto Kuwata-Gonokami, and Yohei Kobayashi

    Efficient high harmonics generation (HHG) was demonstrated at 10 MHz repetition rate with an external femtosecond enhancement cavity, seeded by a ${\sim}70~\text{fs}$ post-compressed 10 MHz fiber chirped pulse amplifier (FCPA) laser. Operation lasting over 30 min with 0.1 mW outcoupled power at 149 nm was demonstrated. It was found that shorter pulse was beneficial for alleviating the nonlinear plasma effect and improving the efficiency of HHG. Low finesse cavity can relax the plasma nonlinearity clamped intra-cavity power and improve the cavity-locking stability. The pulse duration is expected to be below 100 fs for both 1040 nm and 149 nm outputs, making it ideal for applications such as time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

    Mar. 07, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e19 (2018)
  • Dajie Huang, Wei Fan, He Cheng, Gang Xia, Lili Pei, Xuechun Li, and Zunqi Lin

    An optically addressed liquid crystal modulator for wavefront control of 1053 nm laser beam is reported in this paper. Its working principle, control method and spatial phase modulation capability are mainly introduced. A new method of measuring the relationship between gray level and phase retardation is proposed. The rationality of the curve is further confirmed by designing special experiments. According to the curve, several spatial phase distributions have been realized by this home-made device. The results show that, not only the maximum phase retardation is larger than $2\unicode[STIX]{x03C0}$ for 1053 nm wavelength, but also the control accuracy is high. Compared with the liquid crystal on silicon type spatial light modulator, this kind of modulator has the advantages of generating smooth phase distribution and avoiding the black-matrix effect.

    Mar. 07, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e20 (2018)
  • P. Bradford, N. C. Woolsey, G. G. Scott, G. Liao, H. Liu, Y. Zhang, B. Zhu, C. Armstrong, S. Astbury, C. Brenner, P. Brummitt, F. Consoli, I. East, R. Gray, D. Haddock, P. Huggard, P. J. R. Jones, E. Montgomery, I. Musgrave, P. Oliveira, D. R. Rusby, C. Spindloe, B. Summers, E. Zemaityte, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, P. McKenna, and D. Neely

    Giant electromagnetic pulses (EMP) generated during the interaction of high-power lasers with solid targets can seriously degrade electrical measurements and equipment. EMP emission is caused by the acceleration of hot electrons inside the target, which produce radiation across a wide band from DC to terahertz frequencies. Improved understanding and control of EMP is vital as we enter a new era of high repetition rate, high intensity lasers (e.g. the Extreme Light Infrastructure). We present recent data from the VULCAN laser facility that demonstrates how EMP can be readily and effectively reduced. Characterization of the EMP was achieved using B-dot and D-dot probes that took measurements for a range of different target and laser parameters. We demonstrate that target stalk geometry, material composition, geodesic path length and foil surface area can all play a significant role in the reduction of EMP. A combination of electromagnetic wave and 3D particle-in-cell simulations is used to inform our conclusions about the effects of stalk geometry on EMP, providing an opportunity for comparison with existing charge separation models.

    Mar. 19, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e21 (2018)
  • Andy Liao, Patrick Hartigan, Gennady Fiksel, Brent Blue, Peter Graham, John Foster, and Carolyn Kuranz

    Supersonic flows with high Mach number are ubiquitous in astrophysics. High-powered lasers also have the ability to drive high Mach number, radiating shock waves in laboratory plasmas, and recent experiments along these lines have made it possible to recreate analogs of high Mach-number astrophysical flows under controlled conditions. Streak cameras such as the Rochester optical streak system (ROSS) are particularly helpful in diagnosing such experiments, because they acquire spatially resolved measurements of the radiating gas continuously over a large time interval, making it easy to observe how any shock waves and ablation fronts present in the system evolve with time. This paper summarizes new ROSS observations of a laboratory analog of the collision of a stellar wind with an ablating planetary atmosphere embedded within a magnetosphere. We find good agreement between the observed ROSS data and numerical models obtained with the FLASH code, but only when the effects of optical depth are properly taken into account.

    Mar. 07, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e22 (2018)
  • Xiong Shen, Peng Wang, Jun Liu, and Ruxin Li

    The linear angular dispersion of a self-diffraction (SD) pulse, from a femtosecond laser pulse cleaning device, is compensated for by the use of a single prism. More than $500~\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\text{J}$ first-order SD pulse has a contrast of $10^{12}$, which is about five orders of magnitude improvement from the input fundamental pulse. The wings of the distribution away from the main pulse in $\pm 1$ ps are cleaned with a contrast improvement of about $10^{7}$, which verifies the pulse cleaning ability of the SD process.

    Mar. 07, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e23 (2018)
  • Tianfu Yao, Liangjin Huang, Pu Zhou, Bing Lei, Jinyong Leng, and Jinbao Chen

    The power scaling on mid-infrared Raman fibre lasers (RFLs) is in demand for applications in health, environment and security. In this paper, we present the simulated laser behaviours of the tellurite glass RFLs pumped by 300-W Tm-doped fibre lasers (TDFLs) at $2~\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\text{m}$ for the first time. By combining the advantages of the TDFLs and tellurite fibre, the output power at $2.35~\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\text{m}$ has reached over hundreds of watts by first-order Raman shift. Moreover, the cascaded RFLs have been demonstrated with a wavelength extension greater than $3~\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\text{m}$ and output power of tens of watts. To maximize the output power and the slope efficiency of the RFLs, we further analyse the interaction between the Raman gain and cavity loss, which are determined by fibre length and output reflectance of the laser cavity.

    Mar. 07, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e24 (2018)
  • Lingchao Kong, Jinyong Leng, Pu Zhou, and Zongfu Jiang

    We propose a novel model to explain the physical process of the thermally induced core laser leakage (TICLL) effect in a high power co-pumped ytterbium doped fiber (YDF) amplifier. This model considers the thermally induced mode bending loss decrease and the thermally induced mode instability (TMI) in the coiled YDF, and is further used to reproduce the TICLL effect in the high power co-pumped step-index $20/400$ fiber amplifier. Besides, the TICLL effect in the co-pumping scheme and counter-pumping scheme is compared. The result proves that the TICLL effect is caused by the combined effect of the thermally induced mode bending loss decrease and the TMI, and could be mitigated by adopting the counter-pumping scheme. To our best knowledge, this is the first theoretical explanation of the TICLL effect in high power fiber amplifier.

    Mar. 07, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e25 (2018)
  • Jing Wang, Chunhong Li, Wenjie Hu, Wei Han, Qihua Zhu, and Yao Xu

    Boron nitride (BN) nanosheets incorporated silica antireflective (AR) coating was successfully prepared on fused silica substrate to improve the antilaser-damage ability of transmissive optics used in high-power laser systems. The BN nanosheets were obtained by urea assisted solid exfoliation, and then incorporated into basic-catalyzed silica sols without any further treatment. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) images indicated that the BN nanosheets generally consisted of 2–10 layers. The antireflective BN/$\text{SiO}_{2}$ coating exhibited excellent transmittance as high as 99.89% at 351 nm wavelength on fused silica substrate. The thermal conductivity $0.135~\text{W}\cdot \text{m}^{-1}\cdot \text{K}^{-1}$ of the BN/$\text{SiO}_{2}$ coating with 10% BN addition was about 23% higher than $0.11~\text{W}\cdot \text{m}^{-1}\cdot \text{K}^{-1}$ of the pure $\text{SiO}_{2}$ AR coating. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of that BN/$\text{SiO}_{2}$ coating is also 23.1% higher than that of pure $\text{SiO}_{2}$ AR coating. This research provides a potential application of BN/$\text{SiO}_{2}$ coatings in high-power laser systems.

    Mar. 07, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e26 (2018)
  • Han Chi, Bowen Liu, Youjian Song, Minglie Hu, Lu Chai, Weidong Shen, Xu Liu, and Chingyue Wang

    We demonstrate a nonlinearity optimization method by altering distribution of passive fibers in a dissipative-soliton mode-locked fiber laser to level up output parameters. In the numerical simulation, we found that the passive fiber segment after gain fiber characterizes the highest average B-integral among fiber segments. By reducing the length of this fiber section and keeping the total passive fiber length as constant, the output pulse energy can be effectively scaled up while maintaining a short dechirped pulse duration, resulting in boosting peak power. With this method, 37-nJ pulses are generated from a dissipative-soliton mode-locked cladding pumped ytterbium-doped single-mode fiber laser in the experiment. The pulse can be dechirped to 66 fs with 350 kW peak power. Moreover, the pulse pedestal is suppressed by a vector-dispersion compressor.

    Mar. 07, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e27 (2018)
  • Jiaxin Song, Hanshuo Wu, Jun Ye, Hanwei Zhang, Jiangming Xu, Pu Zhou, and Zejin Liu

    In this paper, we experimentally investigated the extreme frequency shift in high-power Raman fiber laser (RFL). The RFL was developed by using a pair of fiber Bragg gratings with fixed and matched central wavelength (1120 nm) combined with a piece of 31-m-long polarization maintaining (PM) passive fiber adopted as Raman gain medium. The pump source was a homemade high-power, linearly polarized (LP) wavelength-tunable master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) source with ${\sim}25~\text{nm}$ tunable working range (1055–1080 nm). High-power and high-efficiency RFL with extreme frequency shift between the pump and Stokes light was explored. It is found that frequency shift located within 10.6 THz and 15.2 THz can ensure efficient Raman lasing, where the conversion efficiency is more than 95% of the maximal value, 71.3%. In addition, a maximum output power of 147.1 W was obtained with an optical efficiency of 71.3%, which is the highest power ever reported in LP RFLs to the best of our knowledge.

    Mar. 19, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e28 (2018)
  • Jianqiang Zhu, Xinglong Xie, Meizhi Sun, Jun Kang, Qingwei Yang, Ailin Guo, Haidong Zhu, Ping Zhu, Qi Gao, Xiao Liang, Ziruo Cui, Shunhua Yang, Cheng Zhang, and Zunqi Lin

    We present a recent progress of the SG-II 5PW facility, which designed a multi-petawatt ultrashort pulse laser based on optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). The prior two optical parametric amplifiers have been accomplished and chirped pulses with an energy of 49.7 J and a full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) spectrum bandwidth of 85 nm have been achieved. In the PW-scale optical parametric amplification (OPA), with the pump pulse that has an energy of 118 J from the second harmonic generation of the SG-II 7th beam, the pump-to-signal conversion efficiency is up to 41.9%, which to the best of our knowledge is the highest among all of the reported values for OPCPA systems. The compressed pulse is higher than 37 J in 21 fs (1.76 PW), and the focal spot is ${\sim}10~\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\text{m}$ after the closed-loop corrections by the adaptive optics. Limited by the repetition of the pump laser, the SG-II 5PW facility operates one shot per hour. It has successfully been employed for high energy physics experiments.

    Mar. 19, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e29 (2018)
  • Th. Michel, E. Falize, B. Albertazzi, G. Rigon, Y. Sakawa, T. Sano, H. Shimogawara, R. Kumar, T. Morita, C. Michaut, A. Casner, P. Barroso, P. Mabey, Y. Kuramitsu, S. Laffite, L. Van Box Som, G. Gregori, R. Kodama, N. Ozaki, P. Tzeferacos, D. Lamb, and M. Koenig

    In this paper, we present a model characterizing the interaction of a radiative shock (RS) with a solid material, as described in a recent paper (Koenig et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 082707 (2017)), the new model is then related to recent experiments performed on the GEKKO XII laser facility. The RS generated in a xenon gas cell propagates towards a solid obstacle that is ablated by radiation coming from the shock front and the radiative precursor, mimicking processes occurring in astrophysical phenomena. The model presented here calculates the dynamics of the obstacle expansion, which depends on several parameters, notably the geometry and the temperature of the shock. All parameters required for the model have been obtained from experiments. Good agreement between experimental data and the model is found when spherical geometry is taken into account. As a consequence, this model is a useful and easy tool to infer parameters from experimental data (such as the shock temperature), and also to design future experiments.

    Mar. 29, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e30 (2018)
  • Bo Han, Feilu Wang, Jiayong Zhong, Guiyun Liang, Huigang Wei, Dawei Yuan, Baojun Zhu, Fang Li, Chang Liu, Yanfei Li, Jiarui Zhao, Zhe Zhang, Chen Wang, Jun Xiong, Guo Jia, Neng Hua, Jianqiang Zhu, Yutong Li, Gang Zhao, and Jie Zhang

    We present laboratory measurement and theoretical analysis of silicon K-shell lines in plasmas produced by Shenguang II laser facility, and discuss the application of line ratios to diagnose the electron density and temperature of laser plasmas. Two types of shots were carried out to interpret silicon plasma spectra under two conditions, and the spectra from 6.6 ? to 6.85 ? were measured. The radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF) is used to identify the lines, and it also well simulates the experimental spectra. Satellite lines, which are populated by dielectron capture and large radiative decay rate, influence the spectrum profile significantly. Because of the blending of lines, the traditional $G$ value and $R$ value are not applicable in diagnosing electron temperature and density of plasma. We take the contribution of satellite lines into the calculation of line ratios of He-$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}$ lines, and discuss their relations with the electron temperature and density.

    Mar. 29, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e31 (2018)
  • Luca Labate, Gianluca Vantaggiato, and Leonida A. Gizzi

    A study of the structure of the electric and magnetic fields of ultraintense laser pulses focused by an off-axis parabolic mirror is reported. At first, a theoretical model is laid out, whose final equations integration allows the space and time structure of the fields to be retrieved. The model is then employed to investigate the field patterns at different times within the optical cycle, for off-axis parabola parameters normally employed in the context of ultraintense laser–plasma interaction experiments. The results show that nontrivial, complex electromagnetic field patterns are observed at the time at which the electric and magnetic fields are supposed to vanish. The importance of this effect is then studied for different laser polarizations, $f$ numbers and off-axis angles.

    Mar. 29, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e32 (2018)
  • Ni Tang, Zhiyue Zhou, Zhixian Li, and Zefeng Wang

    We report here a high-power, wavelength tunable and narrow linewidth $1.5~\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\text{m}$ all-fiber laser amplifier based on a tunable diode laser and Er-Yb co-doped fibers. The laser wavelength can be precisely tuned from 1535 nm to 1580 nm, which covers many absorption lines of mid-infrared laser gases, such as $\text{C}_{2}\text{H}_{2}$, HCN, CO, and HI. The maximum laser power is ${>}$11 W, and the linewidth is about 200–300 MHz, which is close to the absorption linewidth of the above-mentioned gases. This work provides a suitable pump source for high-power wavelength tunable mid-infrared fiber gas lasers based on low-loss hollow-core fibers.

    Mar. 29, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e33 (2018)
  • Wei Fan, Youen Jiang, Jiangfeng Wang, Xiaochao Wang, Dajie Huang, Xinghua Lu, Hui Wei, Guoyang Li, Xue Pan, Zhi Qiao, Chao Wang, He Cheng, Peng Zhang, Wenfa Huang, Zhuli Xiao, Shengjia Zhang, Xuechun Li, Jianqiang Zhu, and Zunqi Lin

    A high power laser system was used to drive the ignition of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), of which the high energy, the uniform focal spot, the accurate laser waveform, and the synchronization between the laser beams are key parameters. To accomplish this, global laser characteristics control should be assured, which was the main purpose of the injection laser system. In this paper, the key technological progress involved in the improvement of the performance of the injection laser of SG-II is reported, including frequency domain control, time domain control, near-field spatial shaping, pre-amplifier technology, and the optical parametric chirped pulse amplification pump source.

    Mar. 16, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e34 (2018)
  • L. Van Box Som, é. Falize, M. Koenig, Y. Sakawa, B. Albertazzi, P. Barroso, J.-M. Bonnet-Bidaud, C. Busschaert, A. Ciardi, Y. Hara, N. Katsuki, R. Kumar, F. Lefevre, C. Michaut, Th. Michel, T. Miura, T. Morita, M. Mouchet, G. Rigon, T. Sano, S. Shiiba, H. Shimogawara, and S. Tomiya

    A new target design is presented to model high-energy radiative accretion shocks in polars. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained on the GEKKO XII laser facility for the POLAR project. The experimental results are compared with 2D FCI2 simulations to characterize the dynamics and the structure of plasma flow before and after the collision. The good agreement between simulations and experimental data confirms the formation of a reverse shock where cooling losses start modifying the post-shock region. With the multi-material structure of the target, a hydrodynamic collimation is exhibited and a radiative structure coupled with the reverse shock is highlighted in both experimental data and simulations. The flexibility of the laser energy produced on GEKKO XII allowed us to produce high-velocity flows and study new and interesting radiation hydrodynamic regimes between those obtained on the LULI2000 and Orion laser facilities.

    Mar. 16, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e35 (2018)
  • R. Rodríguez, G. Espinosa, J. M. Gil, F. Suzuki-Vidal, T. Clayson, C. Stehlé, and P. Graham

    In this work we have conducted a study on the radiative and spectroscopic properties of the radiative precursor and the post-shock region from experiments with radiative shocks in xenon performed at the Orion laser facility. The study is based on post-processing of radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the experiment. In particular, we have analyzed the thermodynamic regime of the plasma, the charge state distributions, the monochromatic opacities and emissivities, and the specific intensities for plasma conditions of both regions. The study of the intensities is a useful tool to estimate ranges of electron temperatures present in the xenon plasma in these experiments and the analysis performed of the microscopic properties commented above helps to better understand the intensity spectra. Finally, a theoretical analysis of the possibility of the onset of isobaric thermal instabilities in the post-shock has been made, concluding that the instabilities obtained in the radiative-hydrodynamic simulations could be thermal ones due to strong radiative cooling.

    Apr. 24, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e36 (2018)
  • Lan Zhang, Feilu Wang, Xiangxiang Xue, Dawei Yuan, Huigang Wei, and Gang Zhao

    We present a parameter estimate for continua, and He-like triplets of the high resolution X-ray spectra with a Bayesian inference and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) tool. The method is applied for Vela X-1 with three different orbital phases ($\unicode[STIX]{x1D719}$), Eclipse, $\unicode[STIX]{x1D719}=0.25$, and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D719}=0.5$, which are adopted from the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). A parameterized two-component power-law model [Sako et al., Astrophys. J. 525, 921 (1999)] and a multi-Gaussian model are applied to model these continua and He-like triplets, respectively. A uniform distribution over each parameter is used as the prior belief. Posterior probability distribution functions of parameters and the covariances among them are explored by using the MCMC method. The main advantages are (i) all model-based parameters are set to be free instead of artificially fixing some of the parameters during the data-model fitting; (ii) the contributions from satellite lines are considered; (iii) backgrounds are treated as a correction to the observation errors; and (iv) the confidence interval of each parameter is given. The fitted results show that the column density of scatter component ($N_{\text{H}}^{\text{scat}}$) varies from phase to phase, which imply a non-spherical structure of the stellar wind in Vela X-1. Moreover, the wind velocities derived from main lines of each set of He-like triplets show better self-consistency than those in previous publications, which could provide a reliable approach for the diagnostics of photoionized plasma in astrophysical objects and the laboratory.

    Apr. 24, 2018
  • Vol. 6 Issue 2 02000e37 (2018)
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