Advanced Photonics
Xiao-Cong (Larry) Yuan, Anatoly Zayats

The image on the cover represents the interactions of a flat spiral shaped particle with an incident beam of light. From the perspective of spatial symmetries, this spiral is not a geometrical chiral object. However, thanks to the framework developed in the article “ Spatial symmetries in nonlocal multipolar metasurfaces” by Karim Achouri, Ville Tiukuvaara, and Olivier J.F. Martin, it can be demonstrated that the particle nonetheless exhibits pseudochiral responses in the form of quadrupolar contributions.

Peng Xi

The article presents key principles of an approach to writing impactful review articles.

Aug. 11, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 040101 (2023)
  • Jaehyuck Jang, Jungho Mun, and Junsuk Rho

    The article comments on the the impact on diverse fields of R. A. Beth’s direct detection of the angular momentum of light.

    Jul. 17, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 040501 (2023)
  • Shian Zhang

    The article comments on a new approach to information acquisition in hyperspectral imaging.

    Jul. 24, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 040502 (2023)
  • Yuen-Ron Shen

    The article comments on a recent advance in optical field confinement: using a nanoslit optical waveguide to generate guided waves with 1-nm partial confinement.

    Aug. 01, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 040503 (2023)
  • Karim Achouri, Ville Tiukuvaara, and Olivier J. F. Martin

    We propose a framework that connects the spatial symmetries of a metasurface to its material parameter tensors and its scattering matrix. This provides a simple and universal way to effortlessly determine the properties of a metasurface scattering response, such as chirality or asymmetric transmission, and which of its effective material parameters should be taken into account in the prospect of a homogenization procedure. In contrast to existing techniques, this approach does not require any a priori knowledge of group theory or complicated numerical simulation schemes, hence making it fast, easy to use and accessible. Its working principle consists in recursively solving symmetry-invariance conditions that apply to dipolar and quadrupolar material parameters, which include nonlocal interactions, as well as the metasurface scattering matrix. The overall process thus only requires listing the spatial symmetries of the metasurface. Using the proposed framework, we demonstrate the existence of multipolar extrinsic chirality, which is a form of chiral response that is achieved in geometrically achiral structures sensitive to field gradients, even at normal incidence.

    Jun. 13, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 046001 (2023)
  • Yakun Le, Xiongjian Huang, Hao Zhang, Zhihao Zhou, Dandan Yang, Bozhao Yin, Xiaofeng Liu, Zhiguo Xia, Jianrong Qiu, Zhongmin Yang, and Guoping Dong

    Lead halide perovskite materials exhibit excellent scintillation performance, which, however, suffer from serious stability and toxicity problems. In contrast, the heavy metal-free anti-perovskite materials [ MX4 ] XA3 (A = alkali metal; M = transition metal; X = Cl, Br, I), a class of electron-inverted perovskite derivatives, exhibit robust structural and photophysical stability. Here, we design and prepare a lead-free [ MnBr4 ] BrCs3 anti-perovskite nanocrystal (NC)-embedded glass for efficient X-ray-excited luminescence with high-resolution X-ray imaging with a spatial resolution of 19.1 lp mm - 1. Due to the unique crystal structure and the protection of the glass matrix, the Cs3MnBr5 NC-embedded glass exhibits excellent X-ray irradiation stability, thermal stability, and water resistance. These merits enable the demonstration of real-time and durable X-ray radiography based on the developed glassy composite. This work could stimulate the research and development of novel metal halide anti-perovskite materials and open a new path for future development in the field of high-resolution and ultrastable X-ray imaging.

    Jul. 10, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 046002 (2023)
  • Liu Yang, Zhanke Zhou, Hao Wu, Hongliang Dang, Yuxin Yang, Jiaxin Gao, Xin Guo, Pan Wang, and Limin Tong

    We propose to generate a sub-nanometer-confined optical field in a nanoslit waveguiding mode in a coupled nanowire pair (CNP). We show that, when a conventional waveguide mode with a proper polarization is evanescently coupled into a properly designed CNP with a central nanoslit, it can be efficiently channeled into a high-purity nanoslit mode within a waveguiding length <10 μm. The CNP can be either freestanding or on-chip by using a tapered fiber or planar waveguide for input-coupling, with a coupling efficiency up to 95%. Within the slit region, the output diffraction-limited nanoslit mode offers an extremely confined optical field (∼0.3 nm × 3.3 nm) with a peak-to-background ratio higher than 25 dB and can be operated within a 200-nm bandwidth. The group velocity dispersion of the nanoslit mode for ultrafast pulsed operation is also briefly investigated. Compared with the previous lasing configuration, the waveguiding scheme demonstrated here is not only simple and straightforward in structural design but is also much flexible and versatile in operation. Therefore, the waveguiding scheme we show here may offer an efficient and flexible platform for exploring light–matter interactions beyond the nanometer scale, and developing optical technologies ranging from superresolution nanoscopy and atom/molecule manipulation to ultra-sensitivity detection.

    Jul. 07, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 046003 (2023)
  • Maoliang Wei, Junying Li, Zequn Chen, Bo Tang, Zhiqi Jia, Peng Zhang, Kunhao Lei, Kai Xu, Jianghong Wu, Chuyu Zhong, Hui Ma, Yuting Ye, Jialing Jian, Chunlei Sun, Ruonan Liu, Ying Sun, Wei. E. I. Sha, Xiaoyong Hu, Jianyi Yang, Lan Li, and Hongtao Lin

    Optical neural networks (ONNs), enabling low latency and high parallel data processing without electromagnetic interference, have become a viable player for fast and energy-efficient processing and calculation to meet the increasing demand for hash rate. Photonic memories employing nonvolatile phase-change materials could achieve zero static power consumption, low thermal cross talk, large-scale, and high-energy-efficient photonic neural networks. Nevertheless, the switching speed and dynamic energy consumption of phase-change material-based photonic memories make them inapplicable for in situ training. Here, by integrating a patch of phase change thin film with a PIN-diode-embedded microring resonator, a bifunctional photonic memory enabling both 5-bit storage and nanoseconds volatile modulation was demonstrated. For the first time, a concept is presented for electrically programmable phase-change material-driven photonic memory integrated with nanosecond modulation to allow fast in situ training and zero static power consumption data processing in ONNs. ONNs with an optical convolution kernel constructed by our photonic memory theoretically achieved an accuracy of predictions higher than 95% when tested by the MNIST handwritten digit database. This provides a feasible solution to constructing large-scale nonvolatile ONNs with high-speed in situ training capability.

    Jul. 18, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 046004 (2023)
  • Emil Marinov, Renato Juliano Martins, Mohamed Aziz Ben Youssef, Christina Kyrou, Pierre-Marie Coulon, and Patrice Genevet

    Lidar, a technology at the heart of autonomous driving and robotic mobility, performs 3D imaging of a complex scene by measuring the time of flight of returning light pulses. Many technological challenges, including enhancement of the observation field of view (FoV), acceleration of the imaging frame rate, improvement of the ambiguity range, reduction of fabrication cost, and component size, must be simultaneously addressed so that lidar technology reaches the performance needed to strongly impact the global market. We propose an innovative solution to address the problem of wide FoV and extended unambiguous range using an acousto-optic modulator that rapidly scans a large-area metasurface deflector. We further exploit a multiplexing illumination technique traditionally deployed in the context of telecommunication theory to extend the ambiguity range and to drastically improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the measured signal. Compacting our metasurface-scanning lidar system to chip-scale dimension would open new and exciting perspectives, eventually relevant to the autonomous vehicles and robotic industries.

    Jul. 20, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 046005 (2023)
  • Zheng Zhu, Yuquan Zhang, Shuoshuo Zhang, Aurèle J. L. Adam, Changjun Min, Hendrik Paul Urbach, and Xiaocong Yuan

    Nonlinear responses of nanoparticles induce enlightening phenomena in optical tweezers. With the gradual increase in optical intensity, effects from saturable absorption (SA) and reverse SA (RSA) arise in sequence and thereby modulate the nonlinear properties of materials. In current nonlinear optical traps, however, the underlying physical mechanism is mainly confined within the SA regime because threshold values required to excite the RSA regime are extremely high. Herein, we demonstrate, both in theory and experiment, nonlinear optical tweezing within the RSA regime, proving that a fascinating composite trapping state is achievable at ultrahigh intensities through an optical force reversal induced through nonlinear absorption. Integrated results help in perfecting the nonlinear optical trapping system, thereby providing beneficial guidance for wider applications of nonlinear optics.

    Aug. 01, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 046006 (2023)
  • Alessia Suprano, Danilo Zia, Mathias Pont, Taira Giordani, Giovanni Rodari, Mauro Valeri, Bruno Piccirillo, Gonzalo Carvacho, Nicolò Spagnolo, Pascale Senellart, Lorenzo Marrucci, and Fabio Sciarrino

    Engineering single-photon states endowed with orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a powerful tool for quantum information photonic implementations. Indeed, due to its unbounded nature, OAM is suitable for encoding qudits, allowing a single carrier to transport a large amount of information. Most of the experimental platforms employ spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes to generate single photons, even if this approach is intrinsically probabilistic, leading to scalability issues for an increasing number of qudits. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been used to get over these limitations by producing on-demand pure and indistinguishable single-photon states, although only recently they have been exploited to create OAM modes. Our work employs a bright QD single-photon source to generate a complete set of quantum states for information processing with OAM-endowed photons. We first study hybrid intraparticle entanglement between OAM and polarization degrees of freedom of a single photon whose preparation was certified by means of Hong–Ou–Mandel visibility. Then, we investigate hybrid interparticle OAM-based entanglement by exploiting a probabilistic entangling gate. The performance of our approach is assessed by performing quantum state tomography and violating Bell inequalities. Our results pave the way for the use of deterministic sources for the on-demand generation of photonic high-dimensional quantum states.

    Aug. 30, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 046008 (2023)
  • Yuhang Li, Tianyi Gan, Bijie Bai, Çağatay Işıl, Mona Jarrahi, and Aydogan Ozcan

    Free-space optical information transfer through diffusive media is critical in many applications, such as biomedical devices and optical communication, but remains challenging due to random, unknown perturbations in the optical path. We demonstrate an optical diffractive decoder with electronic encoding to accurately transfer the optical information of interest, corresponding to, e.g., any arbitrary input object or message, through unknown random phase diffusers along the optical path. This hybrid electronic-optical model, trained using supervised learning, comprises a convolutional neural network-based electronic encoder and successive passive diffractive layers that are jointly optimized. After their joint training using deep learning, our hybrid model can transfer optical information through unknown phase diffusers, demonstrating generalization to new random diffusers never seen before. The resulting electronic-encoder and optical-decoder model was experimentally validated using a 3D-printed diffractive network that axially spans <70λ, where λ = 0.75 mm is the illumination wavelength in the terahertz spectrum, carrying the desired optical information through random unknown diffusers. The presented framework can be physically scaled to operate at different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, without retraining its components, and would offer low-power and compact solutions for optical information transfer in free space through unknown random diffusive media.

    Aug. 28, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 046009 (2023)
  • Fengchao Ni, Haigang Liu, Yuanlin Zheng, and Xianfeng Chen

    Scattering of waves, e.g., light, due to medium inhomogeneity is ubiquitous in physics and is considered detrimental for many applications. Wavefront shaping technology is a powerful tool to defeat scattering and focus light through inhomogeneous media, which is vital for optical imaging, communication, therapy, etc. Wavefront shaping based on the scattering matrix (SM) is extremely useful in handling dynamic processes in the linear regime. However, the implementation of such a method for controlling light in nonlinear media is still a challenge and has been unexplored until now. We report a method to determine the SM of nonlinear scattering media with second-order nonlinearity. We experimentally demonstrate its feasibility in wavefront control and realize focusing of nonlinear signals through strongly scattering quadratic media. Moreover, we show that statistical properties of this SM still follow the random matrix theory. The scattering-matrix approach of nonlinear scattering medium opens a path toward nonlinear signal recovery, nonlinear imaging, microscopic object tracking, and complex environment quantum information processing.

    Aug. 31, 2023
  • Vol. 5 Issue 4 046010 (2023)
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