Photonics Research, Volume. 10, Issue 10, 2293(2022)

Particle manipulation behind a turbid medium based on the intensity transmission matrix

Kaige Liu1,2、†, Hengkang Zhang3、†, Shanshan Du1,2, Zeqi Liu1,2, Bin Zhang4,5、*, Xing Fu1,2,6、*, and Qiang Liu1,2,7、*
Author Affiliations
  • 1Key Laboratory of Photonics Control Technology, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • 2Department of Precision Instrument, State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • 3Beijing Institute of Control Engineering, Beijing 100190, China
  • 4Beijing Institute of Electronic System Engineering, Beijing 100854, China
  • 5e-mail:
  • 6e-mail:
  • 7e-mail:
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    Although optical tweezers can manipulate tiny particles, the distortion caused by the scattering medium restricts their application. Wavefront-shaping techniques such as the transmission matrix (TM) method are powerful tools to achieve light focusing behind the scattering medium. In this paper, we propose a method to focus light through a scattering medium in a large area based on the intensity transmission matrix (ITM). Only relying on the intensity distribution, we can calculate the ITM with the number of measurements equal to that of the control segments. Free of the diffraction limit, our method guarantees high energy usage of the light field. Based on this method, we have implemented particle manipulation with a high degree of freedom on single and multiple particles. In addition, the manipulation range is enlarged more than 20 times (compared to the memory effect) to 200 μm.


    Optical tweezers use the interaction between light and matter to manipulate particles on the wavelength scale. The path of the photon is deflected as it passes through a particle, while the transfer of the momentum forces the particle to move away from the direction of deflection. Thus, a Gaussian-focused beam can create potential optical traps to bind or manipulate particles [1,2]. Optical tweezers have achieved a wide range of applications in biomedicine [36], precision measurement [79], nanotechnology [10,11], and many other fields [1215]. Optical tweezers impose high demands on the stability of the system and the environment, and the light field distribution at the focal point has a great impact on the manipulation quality [16]. However, the prevalence of the scattering medium disrupts the distribution of the optical wavefront, making the focused beam a diffuse patch of light. Although scattered light fields can also be used to manipulate particles, the scattering effect causes the dispersion of energy and the irregularity of the spot shape, resulting in a less accurate and capable manipulation [17]. Therefore, achieving a high-quality optical focus behind a turbid medium will greatly expand the application range of optical tweezers.


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    Kaige Liu, Hengkang Zhang, Shanshan Du, Zeqi Liu, Bin Zhang, Xing Fu, Qiang Liu. Particle manipulation behind a turbid medium based on the intensity transmission matrix[J]. Photonics Research, 2022, 10(10): 2293

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    Paper Information

    Category: Holography, Gratings, and Diffraction

    Received: Apr. 29, 2022

    Accepted: Jul. 31, 2022

    Published Online: Sep. 21, 2022

    The Author Email: Bin Zhang (, Xing Fu (, Qiang Liu (



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