Infrared and Laser Engineering, Volume. 50, Issue 11, 20210453(2021)

Temperature dependency of InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diode for 1 550 nm photons

Wang Shuai1,2, Han Qin1,2,3,*, Ye Han1,2, Geng Liyan1,2, Lu Ziqing1,2, Xiao Feng1,2, and Xiao Fan1,2
Author Affiliations
  • 1State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China
  • 2Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • 3School of Electronic, Electrical and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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    Single-photon detectors for the near-infrared wavelength region are receiving widespread attention in an increasing number of photon counting applications. In fields such as quantum information processing, quantum communication, 3-D laser ranging (LiDAR), time-resolved spectroscopy, etc. An InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) was designed and demonstrated to detect 1 550 nm wavelength photons in this paper. The SPAD has a separate absorption, grading, charge and multiplication region structure (SAGCM) with single photon sensitivity when working in Geiger-mode. The characterization of the SPAD include breakdown voltage, dark count rate, single photon detection efficiency and after pulse probability as functions of temperature from 223 to 293 K. The 25 μm diameter SPAD shows certain temperature dependency, with breakdown voltage dependence of approximately 100 mV/K. Operating at 223 K and in Geiger-mode, the SPAD achieves a photon detection efficiency of 21% at 1 550 nm with a dark count rate of 4.1 kHz and a after pulse probability of 3.29%. The source and physical mechanism of the photon detection efficiency, dark count rate and after pulse probability of the SPAD with temperature dependency were also analyzed and discussed. The mechanism analysis, discussion and calculation can provide more theoretical basis and support for the design and fabrication of SPAD.


    0 Introduction

    In the last decade, InGaAs detectors for the near infrared wavelength range from 1.0 to 1.7 μm have made crucial progress with the development of high-speed receivers for fiber optic telecommunications [1-2]. InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDs) for fiber optic telecommunications are reversed bias pn junctions operated in "Linear-mode" [3]. The output photocurrent is proportional to input optical power in this mode. Excellent characteristic performance APDs benefit from internal gain owing to impact ionization is developed for high gain-bandwidth and low excess noise application. However, single photon detectors supply a macroscopic electrical pulse in response to a single photon irradiating on the APD. Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) are pn junctions which are biased over breakdown voltage (Vbr) which operate in the so-called "Geiger-mode" [4]. A single photon irradiating can trigger a self-sustaining electron hole generation event that leads to a macroscopic current pulse. Devices working in this mode can provide the capability to accurately detect the arrival at the SPAD of a single photon[5].


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    Shuai Wang, Qin Han, Han Ye, Liyan Geng, Ziqing Lu, Feng Xiao, Fan Xiao. Temperature dependency of InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diode for 1 550 nm photons[J]. Infrared and Laser Engineering, 2021, 50(11): 20210453

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    Paper Information

    Category: Infrared technology and application

    Received: May. 10, 2021

    Accepted: --

    Published Online: Dec. 7, 2021

    The Author Email: Han Qin (



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