Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences, Volume. 16, Issue 3, 2330006(2023)

Three-dimensional structure of liver vessels and spatial distribution of hepatic immune cells

Mengli Xu1, Zheng Liu1, Xinlin Li2, Xinru Wang2, Xuenan Yuan2, Chenlu Han2, and Zhihong Zhang1,2、*
Author Affiliations
  • 1Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Hainan Province, School of Biomedical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou, Hainan 570228, P. R. China
  • 2Britton Chance Center and MoE Key Laboratory for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Huazhong, University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, P. R. China
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    As the largest internal organ of the human body, the liver has an extremely complex vascular network and multiple types of immune cells. It plays an important role in blood circulation, material metabolism, and immune response. Optical imaging is an effective tool for studying fine vascular structure and immunocyte distribution of the liver. Here, we provide an overview of the structure and composition of liver vessels, the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the liver, and the spatial distribution and immune function of various cell components of the liver. Especially, we emphasize the 3D imaging methods for visualizing fine structure in the liver. Finally, we summarize and prospect the development of 3D imaging of liver vessels and immune cells.


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    Mengli Xu, Zheng Liu, Xinlin Li, Xinru Wang, Xuenan Yuan, Chenlu Han, Zhihong Zhang. Three-dimensional structure of liver vessels and spatial distribution of hepatic immune cells[J]. Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences, 2023, 16(3): 2330006

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    Paper Information

    Category: Research Articles

    Received: Dec. 15, 2022

    Accepted: Mar. 1, 2023

    Published Online: May. 25, 2023

    The Author Email: Zhang Zhihong (



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