In the year of 2000, the Nobel prize in chemistry was awarded to three professors, Alan Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa, for their contributions to discovery and development of conducting polymers. Their works altered the previously-held idea that organic and polymer materials are electrically insulating. Instead, conjugated organic or polymeric materials can be conductors and semiconductors. Compared with traditional inorganic counterparts, organic conductors and semiconductors have advantages of excellent mechanical flexibility, easy processing, potentially low cost, recyclability and easy tuning of their optoelectronic properties by molecular tailoring. In the past years, various organic optoelectronic devices have been demonstrated, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic photodiodes (OPD), organic field-effect transistors (OFET), organic energy storage devices, etc. OLEDs have become mature technology for displays and lighting. Other organic optoelectronic devices are still being researched for practical applications. Novel organic optoelectronic materials, physics, devices and applications are ripe for investigation and exploration for a more sustainable society.
Fiber is one of the most fundamental material forms seen in human life. Befitting from their long and bendable shape, fibers with different specialties and different dimensions are used in a multitude of applications, ranging from fabrics  to telecommunications , from generating laser  to sensing and actuating, etc. [4–6]. In recent years, major breakthroughs were made, demonstrating that fibers have novel optical [7–9], electronic , acoustic [11, 12] and cell interfacing [13, 14] properties that enable new functionalities. Functional fibers and related application research are at the crossroads of many disciplines, including optics, materials science, device physics, nanotechnology, and fluid dynamics.
Dexiu Huang (黄德修, 1937-2022) (Fig. 1) was a professor and doctoral supervisor in the School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), China 12986. He was also the former director of the Department of Optoelectronic Engineering (now the School of Optical and Electronic Information), the Dean of the School of Information, and the deputy director of Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO) (preparatory). Prof. Huang was a pioneer in the field of optical communication in China. He made outstanding contributions in the field of optoelectronic devices, and was the first proponent of the “Wuhan Optics Valley of China (OVC)”. He was given a “Young and Middle-aged Experts with Outstanding Contribution in Hubei Province” award, and was the “National Model Teacher” and “Model Worker of the National Education System” awarded by the Ministry of Education and the former Ministry of Personnel. He was awarded the “National May Day Labor Medal”, and was selected as one of the “30 Innovative People in 30 Years of OVC”.
Broadband optical frequency comb (OFC) generation based on a single electro-absorption modulator (EAM) is proposed. The EAM is driven by a radio frequency (RF) multi-frequency signal generated by a multiplication coupler composed of an electrical power splitter and an arithmetic circuit. Thus the number of comb-lines of the generated OFC can be increased. A complete theoretical model of OFC generation by an EAM driven by nth power of the RF source is established, and the performance of the OFC is analyzed by using OptiSystem software. The results show that, the number of comb-lines of the OFC is positively correlated with the number of multiplication of the RF source signal. The frequency spacing of the comb-lines is twice the frequency of the RF source signal and is tunable by adjusting the frequency of the RF source signal. Increasing chirp factor and modulation index of EAM could increase the number of comb-lines of the generated OFC. The amplitude of the RF source signal had little impact on the flatness of the OFC and the average OFC power. The scheme developed is not only simple and low-cost, but also can produce a large number of comb-lines.
Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) have demonstrated excellent performances in detection of X-rays and gamma-rays. Most studies focus on improving the sensitivity of single-pixel MHP detectors. However, little work pays attention to the dark current, which is crucial for the back-end circuit integration. Herein, the requirement of dark current is quantitatively evaluated as low as 10-9 A/cm2 for X-ray imagers integrated on pixel circuits. Moreover, through the semiconductor device analysis and simulation, we reveal that the main current compositions of thick perovskite X-ray detectors are the thermionic-emission current (JT) and the generation-recombination current (Jg-r). The typical observed failures of p–n junctions in thick detectors are caused by the high generation-recombination current due to the band mismatch and interface defects. This work provides a deep insight into the design of high sensitivity and low dark current perovskite X-ray detectors.
Optical Kerr solitons generation based on microresonators is essential in nonlinear optics. Among various soliton generation processes, the single soliton generation plays a pivotal role since it ensures rigorous mode-locking on each comb line whose interval equals the free spectral range (FSR) of the microresonator. Current studies show that single soliton generation is challenging due to cavity instability. Here, we propose a new method to greatly improve single soliton generation probalility in the anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD) regime in a micro-ring resonator based on silicon nitride. The improvement is realized by introducing mode depletion through an integrated coupled filter. It is convenient to introduce controllable single mode depletion in a micro-ring resonator by adjusting the response function of a coupled filter. We show that spectral mode depletion (SMD) can significantly boost the single soliton generation probability. The effect of SMD on the dynamics of optical Kerr solitons generation are also discussed. The proposed method offers a straightforward and simple way to facilitate robust single soliton generation, and will have an impact on the research development in optical Kerr soliton generation and on-chip optical frequency mode manipulation.
Recent experiments suggest graphene-based materials as candidates for use in future electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, we propose a new multilayer quantum dot (QD) superlattice (SL) structure with graphene as the core and silicon (Si) as the shell of QD. The Slater–Koster tight-binding method based on Bloch theory is exploited to investigate the band structure and energy states of the graphene/Si QD. Results reveal that the graphene/Si QD is a type-I QD and the ground state is 0.6 eV above the valance band. The results also suggest that the graphene/Si QD can be potentially used to create a sub-bandgap in all Si-based intermediate-band solar cells (IBSC). The energy level hybridization in a SL of graphene/Si QDs is investigated and it is observed that the mini-band formation is under the influence of inter-dot spacing among QDs. To evaluate the impact of the graphene/Si QD SL on the performance of Si-based solar cells, we design an IBSC based on the graphene/Si QD (QDIBSC) and calculate its short-circuit current density (Jsc) and carrier generation rate (G) using the 2D finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. In comparison with the standard Si-based solar cell which records Jsc = 16.9067 mA/cm2 and G = 1.48943 × 1028 m-3-s-1, the graphene/Si QD IBSC with 2 layers of QDs presents Jsc = 36.4193 mA/cm2 and G = 7.94192 × 1028 m-3-s-1, offering considerable improvement. Finally, the effects of the number of QD layers (L) and the height of QD (H) on the performance of the graphene/Si QD IBSC are discussed.
Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their unique electronic and optical properties. In particular, TMDs can be flexibly combined to form diverse vertical van der Waals (vdWs) heterostructures without the limitation of lattice matching, which creates vast opportunities for fundamental investigation of novel optoelectronic applications. Here, we report an atomically thin vertical p–n junction WSe2/MoS2 produced by a chemical vapor deposition method. Transmission electron microscopy and steady-state photoluminescence experiments reveal its high quality and excellent optical properties. Back gate field effect transistor (FET) constructed using this p–n junction exhibits bipolar behaviors and a mobility of 9 cm2/(V·s). In addition, the photodetector based on MoS2/WSe2 heterostructures displays outstanding optoelectronic properties (R = 8 A/W, D* = 2.93 × 1011 Jones, on/off ratio of 104), which benefited from the built-in electric field across the interface. The direct growth of TMDs p–n vertical heterostructures may offer a novel platform for future optoelectronic applications.
Highly efficient blue fluorescent materials have recently attracted great interest for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) application. Here, two new pyrene based organic molecules consisting of a highly rigid skeleton, namely SPy and DPy, are developed. These two blue light emitters exhibit excellent thermal stability. The experiment reveals that the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the emission spectrum can be tuned by introducing different amounts of 9,9-diphenyl-N-phenyl-9H-fluoren-2-amine on pyrene units. The FWHM of the emission spectrum is only 37 nm in diluted toluene solution for DPy. Furthermore, highly efficient blue OLEDs are obtained by thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) sensitization strategy. The blue fluorescent OLEDs utilizing DPy as emitters achieve a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 10.4% with the electroluminescence (EL) peak/FWHM of 480 nm/49 nm. Particularly, the EQE of DPy-based device is boosted from 2.6% in non-doped device to 10.4% in DMAc-DPS TADF sensitized fluorescence (TSF) device, which is a 400% enhancement. Therefore, this work demonstrates that the TSF strategy is promising for highly efficient fluorescent OLEDs application in wide-color-gamut display field.
Copper-based metal halides have become important materials in the field of X-ray and photodetection due to their excellent optical properties, good environmental stability and low toxicity. This review presents the progress of research on crystal structure/morphology, photophysics/optical properties and applications of copper-based metal halides. We also discuss the challenges of copper-based metal halides with a perspective of their future research directions.
Inverted perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) have recently made exciting progress, showing high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 25% in single-junction devices and 30.5% in silicon/perovskite tandem devices. The hole transporting material (HTM) in an inverted PVSC plays an important role in determining the device performance, since it not only extracts/transports holes but also affects the growth and crystallization of perovskite film. Currently, polymer and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) have been considered as two types of most promising HTM candidates for inverted PVSCs owing to their high PCEs, high stability and adaptability to large area devices. In this review, recent encouraging progress of high-performance polymer and SAM-based HTMs is systematically reviewed and summarized, including molecular design strategies and the correlation between molecular structure and device performance. We hope this review can inspire further innovative development of HTMs for wide applications in highly efficient and stable inverted PVSCs and the tandem devices.
Nanofibers have a wide range of applications in many fields such as energy generation and storage, environmental sensing and treatment, biomedical and health, thanks to their large specific surface area, excellent flexibility, and superior mechanical properties. With the expansion of application fields and the upgrade of application requirements, there is an inevitable trend of improving the performance and functions of nanofibers. Over the past few decades, numerous studies have demonstrated how nanofibers can be adapted to more complex needs through modifications of their structures, materials, and assembly. Thus, it is necessary to systematically review the field of nanofibers in which new ideas and technologies are emerging. Here we summarize the recent advanced strategies to improve the performances and expand the functions of nanofibers. We first introduce the common methods of preparing nanofibers, then summarize the advances in the field of nanofibers, especially up-to-date strategies for further enhancing their functionalities. We classify these strategies into three categories: design of nanofiber structures, tuning of nanofiber materials, and improvement of nanofibers assemblies. Finally, the optimization methods, materials, application areas, and fabrication methods are summarized, and existing challenges and future research directions are discussed. We hope this review can provide useful guidance for subsequent related work.
Organic photodiodes (OPDs) have shown great promise for potential applications in optical imaging, sensing, and communication due to their wide-range tunable photoelectrical properties, low-temperature facile processes, and excellent mechanical flexibility. Extensive research work has been carried out on exploring materials, device structures, physical mechanisms, and processing approaches to improve the performance of OPDs to the level of their inorganic counterparts. In addition, various system prototypes have been built based on the exhibited and attractive features of OPDs. It is vital to link the device optimal design and engineering to the system requirements and examine the existing deficiencies of OPDs towards practical applications, so this review starts from discussions on the required key performance metrics for different envisioned applications. Then the fundamentals of the OPD device structures and operation mechanisms are briefly introduced, and the latest development of OPDs for improving the key performance merits is reviewed. Finally, the trials of OPDs for various applications including wearable medical diagnostics, optical imagers, spectrometers, and light communications are reviewed, and both the promises and challenges are revealed.