High-performance solid-state quantum sources in the telecom band are of paramount importance for long-distance quantum communications and the quantum Internet by taking advantage of a low-loss optical fiber network. Here, we demonstrate bright telecom-wavelength single-photon sources based on In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) deterministically coupled to hybrid circular Bragg resonators (h-CBRs) by using a wide-field fluorescence imaging technique. The QD emissions are redshifted toward the telecom O-band by using an ultra-low InAs growth rate and an InGaAs strain reducing layer. Single-photon emissions under both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed operations are demonstrated, showing high brightness with count rates of 1.14 MHz and 0.34 MHz under saturation powers and single-photon purities of g(2)(0)=0.11±0.02 (CW) and g(2)(0)=0.087±0.003 (pulsed) at low excitation powers. A Purcell factor of 4.2 with a collection efficiency of 11.2%±1% at the first lens is extracted, suggesting efficient coupling between the QD and h-CBR. Our work contributes to the development of highly efficient single-photon sources in the telecom band for fiber-based quantum communication and future distributed quantum networks.
Spin splitting of light originates from the interplay between the polarization and spatial degrees of freedom as a fundamental constituent of the emerging spin photonics, providing a prominent pathway for manipulating photon spin and developing exceptional photonic devices. However, previously relevant devices were mainly designed for routing monotonous spin splitting of light. Here, we realize an oscillatory spin splitting of light via metasurface with two channel Pancharatnam–Berry phases. For the incidence of a linearly polarized light, the concomitant phases arising from opposite spin states transition within pathways of the metasurface induce lateral spin splitting of light with alternately changed transport direction during beam guiding. We demonstrate the invariance of this phenomenon with an analogous gauge transformation. This work provides a new insight on steering the photon spin and is expected to explore a novel guiding mechanism of relativistic spinning particles, as well as applications of optical trapping and chirality sorting.
Transformation optics (TO) facilitates flexible designs of spatial modulation of optical materials via coordinate transformations, thus, enabling on-demand manipulations of electromagnetic waves. However, the application of TO theory in control of hyperbolic waves remains elusive due to the spatial metric signature transition from (+,+) to (-,+) of a two-dimensional hyperbolic geometry. Here, we proposed a distinct Pythagorean theorem, which leads to establishing an anisotropic Fermat’s principle. It helps to construct anisotropic geometries and is a powerful tool for manipulating hyperbolic waves at the nanoscale and polaritons. Making use of absolute instruments, the excellent collimating and focusing behaviors of naturally in-plane hyperbolic polaritons in van der Waals α–MoO3 layers are demonstrated, which opens up a new way for polaritons manipulation.
Integrated optical phased arrays (OPAs) have attracted significant interest to steer laser beams for applications including free-space communications, holography, and light detection and ranging. Although many methods have been proposed to suppress grating lobes, OPAs have also been limited by the trade-off between field of view (FOV) and beamforming efficiency. Here, we propose a metasurface empowered port-selected OPA (POPA), an OPA steered by port selection, which is implemented by an aperiodic waveguide array with an average pitch less than the wavelength and phase controlled by coupling among waveguides. A metasurface layer above the POPA was designed to increase wide FOV steering, aliasing-free by polarization division. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate beam scanning over a ±41.04°×7.06° FOV. The aliasing-free POPA with expanded FOV shows successful incorporation of the waveguide-based OPA technique with an emerging metasurface design, indicating much exploration in concepts for integrated photonic devices.
We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate an RGB achromatic metalens that operates concurrently at three visible wavelengths (λ=450, 532, and 700 nm) with a high numerical aperture of 0.87. The RGB metalens is designed by simple integration of metalens components with the spatial interleaving method. The simulated spatial interleaving metalens shows RGB achromatic operation with focusing efficiencies of 25.2%, 58.7%, and 66.4% at the wavelengths of 450, 532, and 700 nm, respectively. A 450 μm diameter metalens operating at three designated wavelengths is fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The fabricated metalens has the measured focusing efficiencies of 5.9%, 11.3%, and 13.6% at λ=450, 532, and 700 nm, respectively. The Strehl ratios of 0.89, 0.88, and 0.82 are obtained at given wavelengths, which show a capability of diffraction-limited operation.