Chinese Journal of Lasers, Volume. 51, Issue 16, 1602201(2024)

Ultrasonic Rolling Strengthening and Wear Properties of Laser Remelted High Manganese Steel

Enlan Zhao1,2、*, Yuxing Peng1, Jiaxiang Man2, Xiang Liu1, and Haifeng Yang1
Author Affiliations
  • 1School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu, China
  • 2School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xuzhou University of Technology, Xuzhou 221018, Jiangsu, China
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    High manganese steel (HMnS) has good deformation hardening properties. Under impact load, its surface rapidly hardens, thereby improving surface hardness but maintaining good toughness inside. However, under low stress wear conditions, it often exhibits a low hardening behavior accompanied by early surface wear. The pre-hardening treatment of the HMnS surface can improve its mechanical properties under low impact and low stress conditions. Therefore, scholars have proposed various surface pre-hardening treatment methods for HMnS, such as mechanical shot peening, explosive hardening, laser shock, and ultrasonic shock. Laser remelting is the process of using a laser beam to melt the surface of a material and improve its microstructure and mechanical properties through the rapid solidification of the molten pool. Unlike the equiaxed grains of cast HMnS, laser remelted HMnS often forms typical columnar and equiaxed dendritic structures due to the high temperature gradient and high cooling rate during solidification. Therefore, exploring the hardening behavior and wear resistance of laser remelted HMnS under ultrasonic rolling is of great significance.


    This study used continuous cast Mn13 steel plate for laser remelting, and its cross-sectional microstructure was equiaxed grains. The laser power used was 700 W, the laser wavelength was about 960 nm, the scanning speed was 5 mm/s, the spot diameter was 1.2 mm, and the overlap rate was 50%. To prevent oxidation during laser remelting, high-purity argon with volume fraction of 99.99% gas was selected as the protective gas. An ultrasonic rolling strengthening device was used to treat the surface of HMnS after laser remelting with an amplitude of 4 μm. The vibration frequency was 40 kHz, and the static pressures were 100 N and 200 N, respectively. The samples were sequentially ground, polished, and corroded using silicon carbide sandpaper, metallographic grinder, and aqua regia solution. Measurement and analysis of laser remelted HMnS before and after ultrasonic rolling were carried out using field emission electron probe microanalyser, electron backscatter diffractometer, field emission scanning electron microscope, roughness profilometer, Vickers hardness tester, pin disc rotary friction and wear tester, and three-dimensional profilometer.

    Results and Discussions

    During the laser remelting, due to the high cooling rate and temperature gradient, the solidification structure consists of columnar and equiaxed dendrites, without obvious defects such as cracks and pores and without precipitation of cementite. After ultrasonic rolling with static pressures of 100 N and 200 N, the surface hardness increases by 120.48% and 173.82%, respectively. It can be seen that the microstructure of laser remelted HMnS also has deformation hardening, especially with outstanding surface hardness properties. The wear test shows that without ultrasonic rolling, the depth and width of the wear marks are the highest. In contrast, the depth and width of the wear marks are the lowest when the static pressure of ultrasonic rolling is 100 N. The volume wear rate without ultrasonic rolling is 6.945×10-5 mm3/(N·m), and those under ultrasonic rolling with static pressure of 100 N and 200 N are 4.93×10-5 mm3/(N·m) and 5.95×10-5 mm3/(N·m), respectively. The ultrasonic rolling hardening mechanism of laser remelted HMnS is as follows. During the ultrasonic rolling, the surface of laser remelted HMnS undergoes severe plastic deformation, which is essentially dislocation slip and deformation twinning. Normally, high-frequency ultrasonic rolling can obtain nanograins on the surface of the material. Unlike the equiaxed grain structure of cast HMnS, laser remelted HMnS has a high interdendritic Mn content, while the intra-dendrite Mn content is lower. So the stacking fault energy within the dendrites is lower than that between the dendrites, making it easier to form twins within the dendrites. Twins can still expand between adjacent dendrites, forming twins that can penetrate multiple dendrites. The results indicate that the small angle grain boundaries and Mn segregation do not inhibit the formation and expansion of twinning. Due to the small angle grain boundaries and Mn segregation that can hinder the movement of dislocations, laser remelted HMnS exhibits good deformation hardening behavior.


    This study uses laser remelting technology to obtain non-uniform solidification structure on the surface of HMnS, and investigates the hardening behavior and wear resistance of non-uniform solidification structure of HMnS under ultrasonic rolling. The solidification structure of laser remelted HMnS is composed of thinner equiaxed dendrites and columnar dendrites growing perpendicular to the bonding surface. There are many small angle grain boundaries formed in the solidification structure, and there is Mn segregation at the small angle grain boundaries. The non-uniform structure of laser remelted HMnS forms a dense twinning and thin severe plastic deformation layer under ultrasonic rolling, indicating its twinning hardening behavior. The thickness of the severe plastic deformation layer is 3?4 μm. The wear test shows that when the static pressure of ultrasonic rolling is 100 N, the twinning hardening and severe plastic deformation of the surface significantly increase the surface hardness of HMnS, and the volume wear rate is reduced by 29.01% compared to that of the surface without ultrasonic rolling. The wear mechanism is light adhesive wear and abrasive wear.


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    Enlan Zhao, Yuxing Peng, Jiaxiang Man, Xiang Liu, Haifeng Yang. Ultrasonic Rolling Strengthening and Wear Properties of Laser Remelted High Manganese Steel[J]. Chinese Journal of Lasers, 2024, 51(16): 1602201

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    Paper Information

    Category: Laser Surface Machining

    Received: Aug. 7, 2023

    Accepted: Sep. 15, 2023

    Published Online: Apr. 17, 2024

    The Author Email: Zhao Enlan (