Chinese Optics Letters, Volume. 20, Issue 7, 071301(2022)

LiNbO3 channel and ridge waveguides based on helium ion implantation combined with lithography and precise diamond dicing

Sumei Wang1, Jinhua Zhao1,*, Jinjun Gu1, Mingyang Bu1, Li Fan1, Shuang Li1, Xifeng Qin1, Yicun Yao2, Yingying Ren3, and Lei Wang4
Author Affiliations
  • 1School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101, China
  • 2Shandong Key Laboratory of Optical Communication Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Information Technology, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, China
  • 3Shandong Provincial Engineering and Technical Center of Light Manipulations & Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optics and Photonic Device, School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China
  • 4School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
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    Lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) channel and ridge waveguides have been successfully fabricated by He ion implantation, which has energy of 500 keV and fluence of 1.5×1016 ions/cm2 and is combined with lithography and the precise diamond dicing technique. The refractive index profile of the annealed LN planar waveguide was reconstructed. The propagation loss of the channel waveguide with a width of 10 µm and that of the ridge waveguides with widths of 25 µm and 15 µm were investigated by the end-face coupling method. In our work, the factors that affect the waveguide properties of channel and ridge waveguides were revealed.


    1. Introduction

    In recent decades, lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN), with an oxygen octahedral structure, has been applied in photonic industry and considered to be optical “silicon”[1,2] for its unique properties—namely excellent electro-optic, nonlinear optical properties, wide transparency window, exceptional signal quality, and good temperature stability[3,4]. The LN on insulator (LNOI) platform promises to combine the excellent nonlinear properties of LN crystal with high contrast waveguides[5]. Recent progress in the fabrication technique has enabled ultra-low loss thin film LN waveguides, which is revolutionizing not only the LN industry, but also the field of large-scale photonic integration[6]. As a result, the LN crystals are found in a wide range of experiments and optical devices[2], so they were researched in this paper.


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    Sumei Wang, Jinhua Zhao, Jinjun Gu, Mingyang Bu, Li Fan, Shuang Li, Xifeng Qin, Yicun Yao, Yingying Ren, Lei Wang. LiNbO3 channel and ridge waveguides based on helium ion implantation combined with lithography and precise diamond dicing[J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2022, 20(7): 071301

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    Paper Information

    Category: Integrated Optics

    Received: Feb. 7, 2022

    Accepted: Apr. 18, 2022

    Published Online: May. 7, 2022

    The Author Email: Jinhua Zhao (



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