Journal of Semiconductors, Volume. 43, Issue 6, 061101(2022)

Graphene synthesis, fabrication, characterization based on bottom-up and top-down approaches: An overview

Agbolade Lukman Olatomiwa1,3,4, Tijjani Adam1,3, Subash C. B. Gopinath2,3,5, Sanusi Yekinni Kolawole4, Oyeshola Hakeem Olayinka4, and U. Hashim3
Author Affiliations
  • 1Faculty of Electronic Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  • 2Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  • 3Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia
  • 4Pure and Applied Physics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria
  • 5Centre of Excellence for Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine (CoExNano), Faculty of applied Sciences, AIMST University, Semeling, 08100 Kedah, Malaysia
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    This study presents an overview on graphene synthesis, fabrication and different characterization techniques utilized in the production. Since its discovery in 2004 by Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov several research articles have been published globally to this effect, owing to graphene’s extraordinary, and exclusive characteristics which include optical transparency, excellent thermal, and mechanical properties. The properties and applications of this two-dimensional carbon crystal composed of single-layered material have created new avenues for the development of high-performance future electronics and technologies in energy storage and conversion for the sustainable energy. However, despite its potential and current status globally the difficulty in the production of monolayer graphene sheet still persists. Therefore, this review highlighted two approaches in the synthesis of graphene, which are the top-down and bottom-up approaches and examined the advantages and failings of the methods involved. In addition, the prospects and failings of these methods are investigated, as they are essential in optimizing the production method of graphene vital for expanding the yield, and producing high-quality graphene.

    1. Introduction

    Graphene is an exceptional carbon crystal composed of single-layered materials made up of six bonded sp2 carbon atoms, configured in a honeycomb lattice nanostructure with an atomic spacing of 1.42°. It is the underlying element present in graphitic materials: fullerene (0D), nanotubes (1D), graphite (3D). Andre Geim, and Kostya Novoselov discovered this material in 2004 at Manchester through a method called “Scotch tape peeling” by using adhesive tape to separate an isolated monolayer graphene from graphite. Hence, the graphene layers produced are greatly ordered; possess unique and excellent electrical, mechanical, optical and thermal properties and this has meant that it has drawn lots of attention to itself[13]. Furthermore, it has a high specific surface area of 2630 m2/g, a high intrinsic electron mobility of 2.5 × 105 cm2/(V·s), a superior thermal conductivity with a value ranging from 3000 to 5000 W/(m·K). In addition, it has an extremely good Young’s Modulus with a value of 1 TPa, a high current density, 108 A/cm2 and a good optical transmittance of 97.7%[4, 5].


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    Agbolade Lukman Olatomiwa, Tijjani Adam, Subash C. B. Gopinath, Sanusi Yekinni Kolawole, Oyeshola Hakeem Olayinka, U. Hashim. Graphene synthesis, fabrication, characterization based on bottom-up and top-down approaches: An overview[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2022, 43(6): 061101

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    Paper Information

    Category: Reviews

    Received: Nov. 17, 2021

    Accepted: --

    Published Online: Jun. 10, 2022

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